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Alcazaba de Finana
Built before the tenth century , continued its apogee during the XIII and XV century, to be occupied by the Christians in 1489. The importance of this fort " fiñani " or fiñanera had to be outstanding . A few years later , during the reign of Abd al- Rahman III , Muslim Spain reached the height of its cultural and economic boom , highlighting Almeria, which became one of the most active and rich peninsular Mediterranean ports . In this context, Southeast Rebellions were a serious problem from Córdoba were urged to end . Be as in the days of Abd al- Rahman III when he finished with these serious uprisings , defeating , the main leader of them: Ibn Hafsun . For this, the young caliph , was obliged to go in person to the most critical points of the rebellion , including Finana . This happened to the small of his ascent to the throne Cordovan year. Before arriving at our villa, I had to face opposition from the towns of Baza and Guadix, to be submitted with little resistance. Finana , things went differently. Here he met fierce resistance . The fort is surrounded entirely of houses. " This ancient citadel no remains of houses ," said Maria Pilar Sánchez Sedano in his Muslim architecture in the province of Almería , " not even a division of the enclosure that would respond to the characteristics of the whole citadel needs as their outbuildings are now part of private homes in many cases destroyed walls or windows to enter any dependency. remnants remain standing only three towers and walls that would surround the village and form the living room. The towers are rectangular whose construction system is simple with lime and sand, coated with a layer of plaster " mortar. The district formed from the citadel , is certainly descended from the ancient Muslim suburb , leaving it all some traces that can still appreciate as it is, the layout of the streets of the neighborhood, or reservoirs that are conserved and which are described below.
Alcazaba de Laujar
(XVII Century). It was a large enclosure that centralized power of the old Muslim Taha Andaraj, but after the Moorish and prevention of further uprisings rebellions demolition of these old castles is ordered, so that the remains are scarce (some cloth wall and of towers). According to some authors Almutasim was built by King Taifa of Almería, and during the civil wars Nazari settled here El Zagal, brother of King Muley They, in their confrontation with his nephew Boabdil, the last ruler of the kingdom of Granada. Later, in 1492, after the capitulation of Granada and will be chosen by Boabdil himself to his exile to exile in North Africa. It was also the establishment of the provisional court Aben Humeya, leader of the Moorish rebellion of 1568, and more recently an ejido or community field threshing various eras (in one of which we are). After visiting the few remains of the old Alcazaba we retrace our steps to continue the route, following the footprints on the floor marked in yellow Descend the hill to continue to the left along the eastern edge of El Hizán.
Alcazaba de Marchena
Remains of walls, cisterns and part of the grounds of the old citadel. In the highest part of the hill the tank, rectangular, built of masonry and covered with a barrel vault is the same material, after the tank are remains of masonry walls and immediately you will find a long room, where featured a arched vain. Lower bound in two new wells appear, the first barrel vault reinforced with three arches and the second is a raft excavated in the ground, rectangular, large proportions. In the lower areas of the mountain a series of walls that are adapted to the soil can be seen. CERRO MARCHENA: With consequent major settlement for permanent succession of cultures and people in the environment remains. This site and remains of Roman culture to a greater extent, Muslim succeed being during the Muslim period when Marchena Castle played a key role in controlling the flow through the Valle del Andarax to High Alpujarra. Due to its strategic position suffered several destructions and reconstructions until its complete destruction in 1522 because of an earthquake. Today we find several cisterns and remains of the wall, being declared of Cultural Interest on June 29, 1985. HISTORICAL NOTES MARCHENA: Probably the first cultural Terque settlement dating back to prehistoric times, whose sun village of ancient caves is found in the environment that occupants Thousands heirs in 2500 BC the Neolithic culture. But before Terque was Marchena, a hill that its strategic importance and location will be witnessed successive cultures throughout the centuries. In the Middle Ages, Marchena is Muslim (Marshana), and is part of its founding and settlement activity in the territory of Urs al-Yaman about 20 castles, the configuration over time as the most important fort in the area. From the thirteenth century to form the Nasrid sultanate, Marchena will name a taha. Ten places such taha composed and ruled from the fort, which dominated the region, the inputs and outputs of the Alpujarra taha Alboloduy, Gergal and Valley Pendant. Marchena consisted of three successive fillings with ceramic abudante and varied, some been dated in the twelfth century. The peak corresponds to the castle itself, and it confined enclosure with five homers towers. Among the traces that appear several wells and a piece of wall. On the slopes cemeteries with matching marble tombstones were kufic, which were a source of legend among the locals because it is still talking about the "BOOK OF MUHAMMAD". Terque to the side of Marchena, it is shaping as a people, and after the surrender of Baza and Almeria in the capitulations of 1489, will begin its modern history.
The largest and most important of the Shire, with 7.5 h ª extension, which corresponds to the former Al-Hisana, primitive walled town and administrative center of the deserted medieval taha. Highlights remains of a rectangular toreón built in mud, remains of the wall in different condition, cisterns, a raft, which could correspond to residues homes. Prior to the Arab settlement was Roman.
CASTILLEJO OF CANJAYAR
Remains of masonry with lime mortar and remains of dry stone wall, located peripherally to the esplanade of San Blas.
This castle was built in the ninth century in order to control the road between Granada and Almeria, constituting an essential part in the conflicts between these Taifa. Although the remains are scarcely perceptible, reducing to part of a tower and the mu-grate, and a cistern without dome, its location on the highest part of the Roman and Muslim Abla, in a neighborhood whose urbanism retains the flavor of this culture and its large landscaped domain, worth the visit. From here we can see a series of hills in the flat, as is the case of "Cerrillo of Ages" on the station, each of which bore a prehistoric settlement. We can well imagine the form of land occupation at the time.
Fortaleza occupying a plateau and the neighboring continuous forest, leaving remains of walls and a tower treminando. In the highest part of the mountain is a tower built in mud, appears rectangular. The enclosure, rectangular, walled appears. It is a small stone cistern, vaulted masonry.
Remains of important fortifications, which are in the SE a stretch of wall in a small masonry and other tabiya that perhaps part of a wall attached to the tower and a cistern.
EL CASTILLEJO OF ALCOLEA
Remains of masonry wall at the base and mud on top., On a hill which forms the last link in a mountain range that ends at the river.
EL CASTILLEJO OF ENIX
In a rounded hill, cut down the ravine and there are no defensive remains despite the name.
EL CASTILLEJO OF OHANES
Fortaleza composed of a greater bulwark, with a simple perimeter masonry walls with small openings and a starting defensive tower, also in masonry, in this case with lime mortar. The enclosure comes what ppudiera be a ditch-a raised masonry wall for water supply with outstanding slices at a side that could have a defensive item.
Argárico populated walled, strong defense and superb visual control over this narrow stretch of river character.
FARMHOUSE OF ZARBA
Two-storey building with a gabled roof with Arabic tiles. On the home front, the cover with arch, Recercada by false stalls, plus two flat bays appear, similarly decorated. Upstairs, the openings are formed by óculos recercados by simple molding. The facade is flanked by two towers of masonry, surmounted by semicircular dome.
FELIX CASTILLO DE
Remains of walls and one of the bastions built of masonry and mud. Inside a rectangular courtyard appear with two stays covered by two segmental arches of later construction.
HOUSE POLICE HEADQUARTERS
Large house, two stories, with flat roof and eaves tile. Vanos ground floor arch, recercado with molding, which extends along the entire facade. Vanos recercados by brick, upstairs, also with arch. Balconies on shelves molded stonework, with the central large run and two bays. Railings in balconies decoracvión of leads and spirals. Bars on ground floor with ledge, being highlighted on top and topped by arch, following the shape of the bay.
Penon del Moro
About this great rock, have been located argáricos and Roman remains, although the most important relate to medieval times. Alboloduy, was the capital of the same name taha, had a castle tower on the end of the Moro Rock is located. The most notable remains are those of a well of small dimensions, with dilapidated housing. According to legend, the castle had a passageway communicating with the other great pillar of defense over river Birth: Queen of the Rock. At the base of the Rock is a small but slender bridge of possible medieval origin, which stood on the road next to the river, the main route between Almería and Granada appears.
The Castillejo Abrucena
Something out of the center town, the other side of the gully, his ascension worth it for the beauty of the way, there remains significant localized and domain landscaped environment presented. It is a prehistoric settlement of origin where they have appeared Neolithic remains. The cistern, covered with a barrel vault, is dated in Roman times, while the castle is of Muslim origin with main occupation in Almohad (XII and XIII centuries). This presents an almost solid square tower, which is the most striking element. The western end is closed by a rectangular tare, while south loa remains of another tower are located.
Circular tower built in masonry. Small in size, is located on a promontory with perfect visibility on the space coast area.
Quadrangular defense tower on a base rock quarry, rafas constructed of brick masonry and drawers. At ground level a blinded vain appears on the top level and a window lintel under which the Coat of Arms for the seventeenth century the family appreciates.
TOWER OF VINEYARD Blanes
Quadrangular tower, built in local stone masonry, with traces of gypsum plaster inside. Perimeter access esterior rising.