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Alcazaba de Finana
Built before the tenth century , continued its apogee during the XIII and XV century, to be occupied by the Christians in 1489. The importance of this fort " fiñani " or fiñanera had to be outstanding . A few years later , during the reign of Abd al- Rahman III , Muslim Spain reached the height of its cultural and economic boom , highlighting Almeria, which became one of the most active and rich peninsular Mediterranean ports . In this context, Southeast Rebellions were a serious problem from Córdoba were urged to end . Be as in the days of Abd al- Rahman III when he finished with these serious uprisings , defeating , the main leader of them: Ibn Hafsun . For this, the young caliph , was obliged to go in person to the most critical points of the rebellion , including Finana . This happened to the small of his ascent to the throne Cordovan year. Before arriving at our villa, I had to face opposition from the towns of Baza and Guadix, to be submitted with little resistance. Finana , things went differently. Here he met fierce resistance . The fort is surrounded entirely of houses. " This ancient citadel no remains of houses ," said Maria Pilar Sánchez Sedano in his Muslim architecture in the province of Almería , " not even a division of the enclosure that would respond to the characteristics of the whole citadel needs as their outbuildings are now part of private homes in many cases destroyed walls or windows to enter any dependency. remnants remain standing only three towers and walls that would surround the village and form the living room. The towers are rectangular whose construction system is simple with lime and sand, coated with a layer of plaster " mortar. The district formed from the citadel , is certainly descended from the ancient Muslim suburb , leaving it all some traces that can still appreciate as it is, the layout of the streets of the neighborhood, or reservoirs that are conserved and which are described below.
Alcazaba de Laujar
(XVII Century). It was a large enclosure that centralized power of the old Muslim Taha Andaraj, but after the Moorish and prevention of further uprisings rebellions demolition of these old castles is ordered, so that the remains are scarce (some cloth wall and of towers). According to some authors Almutasim was built by King Taifa of Almería, and during the civil wars Nazari settled here El Zagal, brother of King Muley They, in their confrontation with his nephew Boabdil, the last ruler of the kingdom of Granada. Later, in 1492, after the capitulation of Granada and will be chosen by Boabdil himself to his exile to exile in North Africa. It was also the establishment of the provisional court Aben Humeya, leader of the Moorish rebellion of 1568, and more recently an ejido or community field threshing various eras (in one of which we are). After visiting the few remains of the old Alcazaba we retrace our steps to continue the route, following the footprints on the floor marked in yellow Descend the hill to continue to the left along the eastern edge of El Hizán.
Twelfth century Almohad building, adapted to Christian worship since 1505 as a chapel of Santiago and later chapel of Our Father Jesus Nazarene. It is the only peninsular Almohad whole, despite the time and suffered assaults, preserves the Oratory with its qibla and part of the decoration that now adorns the cover of the mihrab, constituting the most complete building all preserved from that time in our country. Declared a historic-artistic monument of national character since 1983. It is included in Munzer Road as part of the rich legacy Andalusi.
Alpujarreña parapet and architecture
In the back of the head of the church, just at the junction between the Quiet streets, and Church station, we found a small parapet or impasse. It is a manifestation of the intimate nature of the Moorish habitat, where a steep slope allows access to a small extension or closed square, social space converted into several dwellings. Although more recent constructions transformed hiding alpujarreña popular architecture, we can still find pristine white facades, pure volumes and terraos launa, along with a preferred orientation south looking precious and incomparable light. Urbanism shows an intricate design with steep streets, nostalgic memories of the old Hispano settlement.
Avenida Manuel Salmerón
(XIX century). It becomes a basic path of urban expansion, as representative of the economic and social rise of the bourgeoisie enriched space, and still stands today as the main commercial artery. These extensions bourgeois houses become symbols of modernity, shaped by family homes of local dynasties, first two floors, and then increase to three, but always keeping the symmetry of a representative composition and facade. This facade becomes an ordering element of the new bourgeois city desired by local elites as an expression of their symbols and values, which implies the use of classicism and permanent aesthetic adornment, and the historicism and decorativism as languages \u200b\u200bexpressing the triumph of the bourgeoisie as a class. The houses on this street show overcoming the Moorish tradition and stately homes of the Old Regime by more modern bourgeois property, that increase your height to the three plants (more monumentality) which regularize their vain (arranged in parallel vertical axes to a rigid scheme of symmetry and uniformity, based on the compositional principles normalized by the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando) and adopting new ornamental moment (separation plant ledges, overhanging eaves, moldings, doors and windows recercamiento ... ). Bars arranged in windows and outdoor balconies sill, and the gates doorways and stair railings inside, they also become semantics of power and status symbol, replacing the value of heraldry in the Modern Age . Opened in 1857, originally called The Union Street, according to legend for having agreed to liberals and conservatives (Ibarra families and Jewel), then struggled to local power. Others say it served to access road communicating with Almeria La Alpujarra. Whatever the case, in 1918 it changed its name in memory of the famous writer Manuel Salmerón Local Pellón I spoiled in the flu epidemic.
Balsa and Clock Tower
This raft-birth, whose background gushing water, is the testimony of the historic thermal baths Alicún, as mentioned by the Muslim geographer Al-Idrisi, and was the origin of the first settlement of the town, first born Huécija neighborhood, but in the sixteenth century and is considered as one of the 10 places in the Lordship of Marchena in the hands of the Duke of Maqueda. Furthermore, we appreciate the stylized building at the bottom of the raft actually corresponds to an old clock tower that governed the life of the population.
Baroque Manor House Jose Manuel Castillo
(XVIII century). The history of the nineteenth-century bourgeois homes are in the baroque manor houses, linked to the economic recovery of Birth river valley, and in general all the Alpujarra, in the eighteenth century. The original elements that have reached us are the outer cover and the inner courtyard of distribution. Within the relative simplicity of these homes linked to a small landowner and agricultural nobility, the facade shows the popular character of the Baroque, displayed a lack of ornamentation, cleanly cutting holes the wall, the dedifferentiation of plants, the importance of wrought iron railings as a symbol of social prestige, and interest cover as more stately and classical element, which uses a common model framework by brick pilasters centering the entrance gate and holding the central balcony ledge iron. This gate, studded conveniently according to the taste of the moment, is suitable for the passage of carts and horses, originally installed in the rear of the house, but also presents a smaller one for the movement of people sheet. This Almeria manor owes and shares elements with Moorish housing the ancient kingdom of Granada, which creates a chronological thread that links the Moorish architecture of the nineteenth century urban models. These survivals may be: the courtyard as the centerpiece of the house as available and representativeness, a regularized and its four wings arcaded design, the importance of the ladder in the corner of the patio, as an element of vertical communication but also with a like the lobby of the nineteenth-century bourgeois home, as visitor classification, allowing spending of public space on the ground floor to the private rooms of high social function, functional differentiation between productive areas downstairs (cellars, stables , stable, domestic ...) of the private rooms on the top floor, standing outside in the main bay of the facade, and the facade with a representative cover unequivocally classical composition as a symbol of social prestige. Once we crossed the gate entrance hall access the original soil with large slabs of slate (now replaced), and the inner door leads to the arcaded courtyard of interior layout, supported by wooden feet and shoes. But the novelty is your solution covered by casetón patio lights or octagonal, decorated in its central region by a loop motifs of different colors that give a great plasticity and elegance, and remind us of the Moorish tradition. This solution is characteristic of civil architecture Abla and has two other copies, which stand on the whole urban fabric by that peculiar octagonal caisson solution. This house, with a chronology of the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century, then display a transition between the more stately homes and rural models of the Old Regime to the bourgeois nineteenth models, and more concerned about the comfort, privacy and representativeness. Society and the economy are changing and this will be shown in the organization and layout of the apartment.
Barrillería of Alembic
(Siglo XIX-XX). The cultivation of table grapes was a massive culture Andarax Valley during the nineteenth century and much of the twentieth. The special strength of the most common variety, the "Grape Boat", allowed export to European and American markets, and to endure the long journey, the bunches carefully treated, were packaged between cork sawdust in small wooden barrels which led to an interesting and fruitful ancillary industry in the valley: the barrilerías. The development of refrigerated trucks and boats put paid to this specialty, what competition finest leather and grain varieties, joined to wipe a culture and industry that failed to adapt to changing markets. One of the best witnesses of that time and this activity is barrilería of The Alembic, so named because it stands a small brandy distillery, and which also has the added attraction of being located in a traditional cave. Here are plans to install the future Museum of Bentarique Powder, a characteristic action of this town for centuries. Us not forget that after the next stop, we retrace our steps to continue the urban route.
It is the highest of the five district comprising the present town. From his place we can cross it falling down the street El Paso, making a break from their hidden source Velasco. We can recognize how traditional village pattern to alpujarreño cubic housing one or two levels is adjusted horizontally forward deck slab, arranged in a staggered manner to suit the terrain. Reaching the road we will take it past the rising curve of the ravine that crosses the town to take on the rise Source Chestnut Street.
Following our urban surroundings arrive at Barrio Alto. Noting the configuration of narrow winding streets that climb on steep, we could conclude that we would be in place that reflects the old medieval urban population, setting up a possible primitive "hara" or dispersed Muslim Quarter. In this sense, this would be a suitable place for a settlement castillejo to protect the population prior or complementary to the Alcazaba de Marchena. We can continue our walk down the opposite side to rise, to stay on the streets Pulpit and Fencing, Road Public Utility.
Barrio Bajo. Source Jiménez laundry
This source is the heart of the old medieval neighborhood bass Bayárcal and this spring, as in other cases of La Alpujarra, the cause of the creation of the settlement. Birth is a consequence of the cluster of four nearby springs, which were sobreexcavados through small galleries and embovedados with dry stone, so to foster veneros uptake and channeling of groundwater flow, according to an ancient technique alpujarreña. On the other hand, we find a curious laundry born sheltered the old Camino Real bridge Bayárcal, now remodeled as a small sitting area in the environment. Finally, entering fully into the Lower Quarter and continuing along the same street Vegetable Source Jimenez and return to starting point. After making this last stop of the urban route we return to module Tourist Information Point from which we start.
Barrios Mosque and Barranco. Penon del moro
On our journey through a rugged access, is the medieval district of La Mezquita, where the curious Anetillo shed is located, and the neighborhood of El Barranco also Muslim era. The ceramic plate is placed on the floor at the start of the climb to the neighborhood, so we then retrace our steps to continue the city tour. Also be accessed from here Moro Rock, on which the Hizán castillejo Alboloduy disappeared or was. Currently, besides the few remains of the military headquarters, remains part of the inner tank. The archaeological remains found in this settlement demonstrate the presence of an earlier Bronze Age and Roman times. Continuing our way down the street Mosque we will approach the base of Moro Rock.
(XII century). Although it might be a first Roman use, these baths are cited in the twelfth century. The bathhouse, itself, is reduced to a balseta and a lobby, now locked in a shed, popularly known as "The Cuartillo", located behind the tower. Recent research allotted Almohad period (twelfth century) the foundation of this structure. Anecdotally we know that the low flow of these hot baths rose to mark the violent earthquake in 1804. The use of the bathhouse was paid, the price of a quarter in its last stage, benefiting the municipal coffers. To protect the quality of water was forbidden to swim in the pond-birth, which did not prevent many people were taking advantage of the dark summer nights. The baths were languishing until it closed in the sixties.
Bathrooms Hispano-Muslim Benejí
Benejí baths respond to the typical installation of public bathroom Nazari, whose basic structure are aligned parallel three ships attached to its sides, covered with barrel vaults, and interconnected by central holes in the walls where they are fitted. The functional organization is simple and therefore this model enjoyed great success in many places, mainly in rural areas such as the present one. Auxiliary units, input scope hall and home to heat production, are generally simpler construction and attached to the main buildings. In our case there are no data on the situation of these auxiliary facilities. Usually the bathrooms were located next to a source of supply, in this case by the ditch-called "toilets", from the source of Alcaudique. The water in the ditch raft pour on top of ground short of square (with just over 11 m. Aside) that by being wedged between the terraces and the road mark the dimensions of the lot. The raft that follows is in contact with the bath and is built much later, probably built over the entrance area and lobby, which therefore have completely disappeared. The building itself is set back just over two meters above the alignment of the access road, probably around the entire building. More information: Ship 3 x 9 ft ruins of one of the few medieval baths county whose remains have survived. They had several ships, which was attached to the preserved ancient water raft, also of Arab construction, responsible for supplying the bathrooms. The hall is built in concrete joined by lime mortar. In the outer right wall start a vault indicates to us that this ship was part of a set is preserved. The interior has an elongated vave walls covered with plaster. It is covered by a barrel vault, using the same rig for the rest of the set. In it are placed dor arches that help support the thrust of this. The arches are supported on pilasters square base paths, which start directly from the arches. In this series of dome-shaped skylights truncated pyramid, which served to illuminate the interior of the vessel open. The dome has no qrco midpoint but legeramente lowered.
Big Ermita de las Animas
(Iglo XIX). It was built in the late nineteenth century by Patricio Asensio Montero with his house and occupying part of the garden based on a promise. Located at the entrance to the town, reminds us of the heavy load of popular religiosity Andarax entire valley from the martyrs of the War of the Alpujarras and the Catholic Counter-Reformation Council of Trent encouraging us to intercede for the souls in purgatory. By location, also served as a shrine to seek divine protection against the always dangerous travel time.
BOWER OF LAUNDRY S ª ANA
Set of laundry and raft of significant dimensions. Covered and open through arches.
(XVII and XVIII century). Though hidden by lush riparian vegetation fail moisture and water supply The Raft of the pool, we can recognize a functional arch holding the bridge of the same name, built in stone . It is an essential work of civil engineering, enabling the two to communicate Beires slums and as a step in a general way to La Alpujarra. Built between 1682 and 1715, coinciding with the economic and demographic growth of the eighteenth century. The source obtains water from a mine that is introduced about 50 meters on the mountain. Originally supplied a pile of stone cattle trough (hence the name pool), but the flood of the famous "Santa Rosa cloud" of 1871 destroyed it completely and built the current raft.
Brown Quarter source
We are in a neighborhood-street which houses the upper central area of \u200b\u200bthe nucleus, perhaps remnant of an ancient high road that would run much of the population to access the Barrio Alto. As in many medieval Islamic alpujarreños cores imprint, the population is organized in different neighborhoods of the old farmhouse, formerly separated by farmland, following the Christian occupation, grow steadily to the current compaction. In the twentieth century the new road layout split the urban core, and growth generated under the same favors the extension of the population as "street people", with a characteristic five current configuration spaces. In this regard, a new structure above the Barrio Alto, the neighborhood of Broad Street (under the highway and north of the canyon), the neighborhood of Fountain Brown (on the square), the neighborhood can be seen under (under the church), and Punta del Pueblo, (at the exit towards Paterna). From this street we can climb to the viewpoint of the Age Vivero and his Mycological Center, exhibit with photographs of edible and poisonous mushrooms of the environment, and from here we descend into the church by a picturesque, winding passage.
Bust of Miguel Ros Orta
(XX Century). His image this small extension presides at the entrance of the House of Culture in Andalusia Avenue. It reminds us of this famous sculptor and Instinción favorite son with an innate vocation to sculpture since childhood and trained in Terrassa, a city to which he emigrated. Its production is welcome in postwar art environments for busts, family vaults and grave, but especially in religious images to our parish church, where shows great dramatic intensity influenced by the Baroque school. The figures of the Divine Infant, Immaculate Virgin, Christ in the tomb, Jesus of Nazareth, the Virgin of Sorrows, and especially the crucified Christ over the altar, works in wood, not painted plaster. They are all pieces donated by the artist to his people, denoting its strong Christian convictions. The building of the Casa de la Cultura is a simple project characteristic of Franco's postwar architecture, with a pavilion framed between two lateral bodies, to give the property a value monumental facade.
Especially significant is the ordeal of Fondón, the end of a spectacular sense Via Crucis revived every Good Friday. Located on the site of the Erilla Empedrá, dominates the town and the valley. What are three crosses of stone, carved with motifs of the Passion of Christ, on pedestals of different origin: two millstones and other base with reliefs of cherubs. The Via Sacra was established at this place in the s. XVII and rising in this place the Cross of the Martyrs, reminding Christians that were killed by the Moors in Christmas 1568. In its vicinity was one of the poorest neighborhoods, built at the end of s. XVIII, populated mostly by families of miners.
Canyon Mirador the Espeñuelas
Again we find a stunning panoramic view towards the Chico River Canyon, the mountains and especially the Tagus of Palomares (located opposite the cut). Below we can see still subsistence crops on terraces, reminiscent mime and maximum utilization of land and water from the world Hispano. These terraces used water from the acequia de la Vega, allowing irrigated land divided into three distinct areas: weekly watering vegetables, fruit and vines irrigated once every 24 days, and eventual irrigation areas in spring and summer (mainly olive trees). From these general ditches out armbands or branches defined with specific names, and dispatchers acequieros or water leading to the entrance of each plot. If we go beyond this perimeter path for the people arrive to a hermitage of Souls, Located at the entrance of the town reminds us of the heavy load of popular religiosity Andarax entire valley from the martyrs of the War of the Alpujarras and Counter Catholic Council of Trent encouraging us to intercede for the souls in purgatory. This sacralization of space involves placing shrines of souls to remember the dead, dear family, we must save purgatory by our intercession and prayers, and we must always be at peace with God and free from sin, for death awaits us in any time. But it also served as a shrine for God entrusted to your trip, always dangerous at the time.
Captain Juan Godoy House
This house was built by the clerk and captain D. Godoy and Juan Ramirez, in 1662, being the ancestral home of this noble family, whose facade was his coat of arms. This important family in local history featured a series of scribes and notaries from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Some of its members were also famous painters. And there was no lack of provincial and national political stature. Stand on its facade the lintel cover under a ledge that supports the quite original central mixtilíneo balcony in the county, and a semicircular balcony preserved on the right. Inside interesting elements of what was an arcaded courtyard of considerable size are preserved. As in other houses in this legends also speak of treasures found by their owners to work on their walls, important enough to buy significant estates and farms.
Casa de Don Fernando Hita
House with two floors and basement, built in concrete with flat roof visitable. Facade of two bodies separated by a strip with horizontal veneer decorated by parallel incisions, finding framed by pilasters, cornice and plinth under smooth. On the latter, a ballad sill appears to protect the roof, built of brick in diamond, resting on plinths with a shot on ball. In the central part of the facade, this sill is solid and is topped by a pediment with arch molding. The facade is structured by a central axis formed by a simple cover of segmented arc Recercada by false ashlars, on which a complex consisting span three separate units of two cylindrical mullions appears. The central unit of this set consists of an ogee arch, with the lateral horseshoe, all with double profile highlight, with sills protection barrotaje with leads. On either side of this central axis in the two bodies, two separate spans with segmented arches, framed from halfway up fake stones presenting with lead and pointed railings on balconies and railings with ledge and highlight downstairs drawings appear. Under recent openings, small horizontal openings that allow light appear basement.
Casa de Don Lorenzo Gallardo
(XIX century). This building was built in the mid nineteenth century by the banker Lorenzo Gallardo Barrionuevo, founder of an important family line of politicians, businessmen and landowners. The Gallardo is one of the most important bloodlines virgitanos, whose origins date back to France, but appearing in Almeria land during the reign of the Catholic kings because of the War of Granada, and chivalry obtained thanks to the courage shown in the war against the Moors. In the eighteenth century are now fully installed in Berja as members of the local elite. The façade responds to a sober neoclassical model linked to the mid-nineteenth century, with a very symmetrical and orderly organization of voids. Stresses the glazed veranda with own modernist feel of the early twentieth century, and the lamp that lit the entrance, important in a population still lacked streetlights. This enclosed on three sides by a cantilever structure and glazed windows, gazebo is a key element in the architecture of bourgeois nineteenth housing. Lets see without being seen, sociability project into the street, while maintaining family privacy through the use of curtains. But the most spectacular feature of the house is visible from the next Square of San Pedro. It is the monumental courtyard roof lights with a metal frame with colored glass, now badly damaged. After visiting this property we retrace our steps to the Placetilla Nuns to continue the route marked with the footprints on the floor.
Casa del Vicario
(XVII Century). It's a great example of a palatial house down gentry of the Old Regime. The strong bleaching of the facade does not prevent sticking perceive Factory Mudejar brick masonry with drawers. Top gallery sun arches seen in relation to the cameras features food, typical of ancient rural dwellings. The facade shows a classical symmetry of the distribution of gaps, highlighting the cover and railings as prestige items. On the central balcony of the coat of arms Yanguas family, possibly belonged to the house, and called attention to a curious mask appears on the ledge. The interior of the house, in line with the typology of the time, is organized around a courtyard with perimeter gallery on columns, currently covered as a coffer or patio lights but originally, I will be open. After observing the interesting property, we retrace our steps to resume the beaten path. At this point we will come across traces of the second route, marked in yellow, so be careful not to make mistakes and follow the green path.