Urban Cultural Route Abla
To make this urban route through the town of Abla you should head to the starting point which is located in the Tourist Information Point (PIT) which is located in the Old Street Road Almería (opposite the station), allowing you to know the identity of the local culture. We propose a circular by the urban fabric to enjoy its outstanding assets itinerary, tour will be guided through the visible traces in the soil in the form of ceramic, clearly marking him turns to perform and access to most places representative. We hope the experience will be pleasant and constitutes an excuse to return.
- Roman mausoleum We are facing a mausoleum or burial tower late second century, the most important testimony of the Roman town of Alba (the current Abla). The town was already mentioned by Antonine Itinerary (late third century) as a stop for travelers on the road or major road that connected to Cástulo (Linares) to Malaga via Acci (Guadix) Urci (Almería), Murgis (The Ejido) and Abdera (Adra). This rich past several tombstones remain the second century, the full fruit of Romanization of the city of Alba, especially Avitiano pedestal, later visit. The simple square building of 4.8 m on a side, is raised on a plinth of slate and built with "opus caementicium" (construction system obtained with lime, sand and water), which achieves a similar hardness to the current concrete and conservation has allowed despite the neglect suffered. The building would house the tomb of a prominent local citizen. Inwardly we can distinguish two levels. The lower crypt contain the sarcophagus or coffin to the grave, while upstairs the ritual chamber is arranged with a bank or run the altar, attached to the north wall, and noted for the technical novelty of the cover with groin vault, innovation feature of the time of Hadrian and dating has allowed us construction (normally used these mausoleums crowned with a tall pyramid). The lighting is provided by two small windows and perhaps could have an interior decorated with scenes and funerary landscapes. Since the fourth century it was reused as housing and from the XVI becomes hermitage of San Sebastián to nearby dates, religious functionality that has been saved from destruction. However, the threat of serious deterioration and ruin, forced his recent rehabilitation.
- Tinao or shed in Street Albollón (XIX century). Sheds or "bridge house", also called "porches or tinaos" covering the streets and prolong the housing on the other side, are one of the most distinctive architectural elements of traditional architecture alpujarreña, denoting the intimate and popular character of this urbanism Hispano heritage. It is a space of sociability that allows smooth the rigors of winter and summer in the streets, prepare and download beast covered, and were very useful for everyday tasks such as sewing or just conversation.
- Baroque Manor House Jose Manuel Castillo (XVIII century). The history of the nineteenth-century bourgeois homes are in the baroque manor houses, linked to the economic recovery of Birth river valley, and in general all the Alpujarra, in the eighteenth century. The original elements that have reached us are the outer cover and the inner courtyard of distribution. Within the relative simplicity of these homes linked to a small landowner and agricultural nobility, the facade shows the popular character of the Baroque, displayed a lack of ornamentation, cleanly cutting holes the wall, the dedifferentiation of plants, the importance of wrought iron railings as a symbol of social prestige, and interest cover as more stately and classical element, which uses a common model framework by brick pilasters centering the entrance gate and holding the central balcony ledge iron. This gate, studded conveniently according to the taste of the moment, is suitable for the passage of carts and horses, originally installed in the rear of the house, but also presents a smaller one for the movement of people sheet. This Almeria manor owes and shares elements with Moorish housing the ancient kingdom of Granada, which creates a chronological thread that links the Moorish architecture of the nineteenth century urban models. These survivals may be: the courtyard as the centerpiece of the house as available and representativeness, a regularized and its four wings arcaded design, the importance of the ladder in the corner of the patio, as an element of vertical communication but also with a like the lobby of the nineteenth-century bourgeois home, as visitor classification, allowing spending of public space on the ground floor to the private rooms of high social function, functional differentiation between productive areas downstairs (cellars, stables , stable, domestic ...) of the private rooms on the top floor, standing outside in the main bay of the facade, and the facade with a representative cover unequivocally classical composition as a symbol of social prestige. Once we crossed the gate entrance hall access the original soil with large slabs of slate (now replaced), and the inner door leads to the arcaded courtyard of interior layout, supported by wooden feet and shoes. But the novelty is your solution covered by casetón patio lights or octagonal, decorated in its central region by a loop motifs of different colors that give a great plasticity and elegance, and remind us of the Moorish tradition. This solution is characteristic of civil architecture Abla and has two other copies, which stand on the whole urban fabric by that peculiar octagonal caisson solution. This house, with a chronology of the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century, then display a transition between the more stately homes and rural models of the Old Regime to the bourgeois nineteenth models, and more concerned about the comfort, privacy and representativeness. Society and the economy are changing and this will be shown in the organization and layout of the apartment.
- Church of the Annunciation of Abla (XVI century). The volume of the Annunciation Parish Church dominates the urban fabric. The original parish church was erected in the mid-sixteenth by Francisco Lorenzo Mason with an outline of a nave and chancel differentiated. Later, before presenting the sorry state after the Moorish rebellion of 1568, the expanding wealthy families in the seventeenth century with side chapels for burial, and these chapels lose its private character in the nineteenth and communicate with each other, the church appears Today a three naves. Especially emphasizes the rectangular armor moamares files of the central nave with double straps and cuadrales at the corners, while the high altar shows a beautiful octagonal with almizate armor and rich decorated octagonal star. In short it is a jewel of Moorish architecture in the province of Almería. However, during the Civil War it was converted into a cinema and lose much of the artistic wealth furniture: organ, file altarpiece paintings, imagery ..., an irreparable loss for the historical and cultural memory of lost city. Later he reformed with a seudobarroca decor. Stresses on the outside and next to the tower - bell recently rebuilt with a relief representation of a Roman temple (a facade with columns covered by a pediment), whose remains may persist during the seventeenth century and perhaps permanent memory of the saints Apollo Isacio and Crotato, symbolized in the three columns.
- Coat of Arms Alonso de Bazán (XVI century). It is the only other that has come from the old manor house of Alonso Bazán Hacén at Los Bazanes 12 and is under the ledge of the current home. The shield figure illustrates Abul Hacén descendant of Muyley hcen, Moorish king of Granada and faced his relative Boabdil, being rewarded him for his support of the Catholic Monarchs with Abla lands and noble status. In 1500 was given the name of Alonso and take the surname of his godfather, the warden Finana Alvaro de Bazan, receiving royal grant perpetual sheriff Abla. The lineage remained Abla until the nineteenth century. The crown refers to his royal origin and is supported by two lizards, which in heraldry symbolize fidelity, in this case the kings of Castile. The central shield shows a band with the words "Christ conquers" top right and an inverted crescent symbols convert who embraced Christianity at the expense of the old Islamic worship.
- Pedestal Avitiano (II or III century). Near the front of the chapel of San Antón and serving stand or support an iron cross sits this sandstone block yellowish. Despite its poor state of preservation retains an epigraphic inscription on the far side in contact with the wall. Although incomplete the specialists have documented a tribute to the citizens of Alba (Roman Abla) Alfeno Avitiano Lucio, a known Roman tribune who lived retired in Abla. It is the most important Roman rest, along with other inscriptions also from the town, and allows us to date the municipality an apogee during the second and third centuries. After the Christian Reconquest it was attached above an iron cross and he gave a religious character has allowed its preservation today.
- Ermita de San Antón (XVII Century). Its simple facade topped by a belfry holding a bell has been the scene of two features Abla popular traditions of the ancient monument of the Holy Sepulchre and the toe. Formerly the chapel was decorated for Easter with blankets, shawls and bouquets of fruit, in order to create a monument of the Holy Sepulchre, and then the image of the risen stood. This custom has disappeared. The splendors of San Antón themselves are preserved and are a big bonfire on the eve of 16 January.
- Mirador old Alcazaba castle The shantytown called Castles is located in the highest part of the population, where the ancient Arab fortress was based and which has given name to the district toponímico. Just above there is a large open space fruit of terracing the hill a few decades ago to lift an industry, never built, destroying the few remains of the ancient Arab fortress, leaving only a scarce cloth wall, we can observe on the left if you look with detenimientyo. Besides Hispano civilization have abundant documentary and literary references. This fortress was erected strategically to control the communication channel into and visual relationship with Castillejo Abrucena or Finana Alcazaba. This Arab era legend relumbrosa back. He says that a Christian captive, captured by the Arabs when going to marry, she was taken to the mines of Alcazavilla in Abla. The Moorish governor was captivated by her beauty and wanted to persuade her to accept him, and when he refused he locked her in a tower, having to throw a white handkerchief out the window in acceptance. Desperate to not abandon his attitude, opened the door and found her asleep walled and very pale, freaking out the error and spite. The old site will say this still haunted by these mines relumbrosa. Footprint Hispano presence that is the network of labyrinthine alleys, clearly visible in the neighborhood of "castles." However the design of parallel concentric contour, as the street Real (XVI century) and other cross, creating a descending cascade design knoll "castle quarter," corresponds to the new Castilian urban streets of the lower areas. But this hill hill also allows use as a vantage point. To the east we can see the valley of the river as a corridor between Birth Sierra Nevada and Filabres, with the A-92 as a new artery of communication about the town and has radically changed the economy. To the west you can enjoy the valley formed by the Rambla de los Santos, with the impressive Tajo de las Huertas, the terraced cultivation and white chapel of the Holy Martyrs, our next and last stop.
- Cruz and San Juan Ermita de la Virgen de las Maravillas (XIX and XX Century). Da name and organization to the square and is a manifestation of the sacredness of the space to a local event, either by a private or official initiative. We are faced with a simple stone cross which originally stood on a Roman pedestal with a laudatory inscription to the Emperor Vespasian and a chronology of the year between 69 and 79. Traditionally it was installed in the center of the square and later was attached to the front of the chapel. But the lower pillar built in the early fifties, with the trough for animals, the pedestal was discarded or reused as the basis for the current water pipe. The cross shape of the side of the chapel of the Virgin of Wonder, the original image disappeared in 1936. The simple interior has a single nave, transverse arch and a simple wooden choir. Both elements, cross and chapel remind us of the strong religious character under the Old Regime, which leads to create multiple scattered sacralized the urban spaces.
- Chapel of the Holy Martyrs From this trace we perform a little walk to get to the last stop, but worth it we walk 900 meters that separate the people. It is related ideológicamene with the sixteenth century, when a new political and Christian religious model, the Moorish population faces is established ideologically. Within this horizon of religious intolerance, typical of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, and need to raise religiosity of believers by saints and martyrs, tradition and worship the Holy Martyrs Apollo Isacio and Crotato included, declared patron of Abla in 1629 and in whose honor the festivities are held. Tradition recalls these three Roman soldiers who were martyred in Abla before renouncing his Christian faith during the reign of Emperor Diocletian, and the subsequent miraculous discovery of the relics, standing in place as a permanent memorial chapel of the Holy Martyrs . It is situated near the village with a simple structure and plant a single nave and the chancel vault covered by a mate. However, current employers images preserved in the chapel are copies because the originals were lost during the Civil War. This Christian tradition of martyrdom and links to the Holy Men who evangelize Apostolic Roman Spain, as one of them, San Segundo, Abla evangelized and established the episcopal seat in the first century The complement of this Christian faith are abundant shrines (Wonderland, San Roque, San Juan ...) that dot the town.